Chinese Civil War (China's Song)
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|Chinese Civil War|
Clockwise from top left: Nationalist forces entrenched at the Battle of Jinan, Beiyang troops photographed in 1914 outside of Beijing, Sun Yat-sen shortly after establishing the new government in Nanjing, Nationalist artillery company in combat at the Siege of Beijing
|Commanders and leaders|
The Chinese Civil War, also referred to as the Second Revolution, was an armed conflict lasting from 1914 to 1919 between the southern-based Nationalists and the northern-based Beiyang government.
The roots of the civil war were planted after President Yuan Shikai stormed the National Assembly in May 1913 and dissolved the Song Jiaoren government. A week later, President Yuan was shot three times by anarchist college student Mao Zedong, making Li Yuanhong acting president. President Li's pro-democracy stance angered the Beiyang Army's new leader, Duan Qirui seizing power three days later. After enduring two reactionary coups, Sun Yat-sen assembled delegates in Nanjing and formally declared a new government on June 11. President Duan subsequently declared martial law and attempted to place China's major cities and railroads under the control of the Beiyang Army. However, loyalty in the Beiyang Army began to break down and several generals broke from President Duan and recognized the Nanjing Government as the legitimate government of China.
Nationalist and Beiyang forces became entrenched along the Yellow and Wei Rivers a few weeks into the conflict, with various pockets of resistance on both sides. The Beiyang Army suffered from low morale and internal fighting, with some generals even defecting to the Nationalist cause, however was recognized by most governments as the legitimate government of China and had reliable access to foreign loans.