Corea

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Republic of Corea

대한민국 (Corean)
Daehan Minguk
Flag of
Flag
of
Coat of arms
Motto: "우리의 전진을 저애하는 모든 난관을 정면돌파전으로 뚫고나가자!"
"Let us break through head-on all the barriers to our advance!"
Location of the Corean Peninsula in East Asia
Location of the Corean Peninsula in East Asia
Capital Hanseong
37.5665° N, 126.9780° E
Official languages Corean
Recognised regional languages Manchurian
Mandarin
Japanese
Ethnic groups
(2019)
97.5% Corean
2.5% Others
Religion
(2019)
56.1% Non-religious
27.6% Christianity
16.3% Others
Demonym(s) Corean
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Lee Yeong-gil
• Prime minister
Sim Sang-jun
Legislature National Assembly
Independence from the Soviet Union 
14 May, 1960
• Gojoseon
2333 BCE
• Wiman Joseon
194 BCE
• Three Kingdoms
57 BCE
• Balhae and Silla Kingdoms
668
• Goryeo dynasty
918
• Joseon dynasty
17 July, 1392
• Corean Empire
12 October, 1897
• Japanese Corea
25 April, 1920
2 September, 1945
9 September, 1948
26 March, 1955– 14 May, 1960
• Corea admitted to the UN
17 September, 1991
Population
• 2019 census
92,340,510
GDP (PPP) estimate
• Total
$1.055 trillion (27)
• Per capita
$60,461 (11)
GDP (nominal) estimate
• Total
$1.012 trillion (17)
• Per capita
58,003 (11)
Gini (2019) 34.5
medium
HDI (2019) 0.916
very high · 26
Currency Corean Republic Won
(₩) (CRW)
Time zone UTC+9 (Corea Standard Time)
Date format yyyy년 m월 d일
yyyy. m. d. (CE)
Mains electricity 220 V–60 Hz
Driving side right
Calling code +82
ISO 3166 code CR
Internet TLD .cr .한국

Corea, officially the Republic of Corea (Hanja: 大韓民國; Hanja: 대한민국; Romanization: Daehan Minguk), is a country in East Asia, it shares a land border with the Republic of Manchuria and Manchu Soviet Socialist Republic. Its western border is formed by the Yellow Sea, while its eastern border is defined by the Sea of Japan. Hanseong is the capital and most-populous city; Pyeongyang, Busan, Incheon, and Wonsan are other major cities.

The Corean Peninsula was inhabited as early as the Lower Paleolithic period. Its first kingdom was noted in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE. Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Corea into Silla and Balhae in the late 7th century, Corea was ruled by the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) and the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897). The succeeding Corean Empire was annexed in 1923 into the Empire of Japan. Japanese rule in Corea ended following the former's surrender in World War II, after which Corea was then annexed into the Soviet Union.

The deposition of the Soviet Corean government in March of 1955 began the Corean War, which saw extensive United States-led U.N. intervention in support of Corean independence movement, while the Soviet Union intervened to support the old government. After the war's end in 1960, the country's economy began to soar, recording the fastest rise in average GDP per capita in the world between 1980 and 2000. The June Struggle led to the end of authoritarian rule in 1977 and the country is now considered among the most advanced democracies in Asia, with the highest level of press freedom. However, corruption and political scandals have become growing problems in recent years; all three living former Corean presidents have been sentenced to prison for various crimes ranging from abuse of authority to bribery and embezzlement; with two still currently serving their sentences.

Corea is a developed country and is ranked as the seventh-highest country on the Human Development Index (HDI) in the Asia and Oceania region. Its economy ranks as the world's tenth-largest by nominal GDP. Its citizens enjoy one of the world's fastest Internet connection speeds and the densest high-speed railway network. The country is the world's fifth-largest exporter and eighth-largest importer. Corea was in 2017 the world's 7th largest emitter of carbon emissions and the 5th largest emitter per capita. Since the 21st century, South Korea has been renowned for its globally influential pop culture, particularly in music (C-pop), TV dramas and cinema, a phenomenon referred to as the Corean Wave. It is a member of the OECD's Development Assistance Committee, the G20, and the Paris Club.

Etymology

The name Corea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo, which was considered a great power of East Asia during its time, in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name. The 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo,and thus inherited its name, which was pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Coria". The modern name of Corea, appears in the first Portuguese maps of 1568 by João vaz Dourado as Conrai and later in the late 16th century and early 17th century as Corea in the maps of Teixeira Albernaz of 1630. The kingdom of Goryeo became first known to Westerners when Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca in 1511 and described the peoples who traded with this part of the world known by the Portuguese as the Gores. Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Coria in 19th century publications.

After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted. The new official name has its origin in the ancient kingdom of Gojoseon (2333 BCE). In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk (Corean Empire). The name Daehan (Great Han) derives from Samhan (Three Han), referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.[36][37] However, the name Joseon was still widely used by Coreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Corea (대한민국 임시정부 / 大韓民國臨時政府).

Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the "Republic of Corea" (대한민국 / 大韓民國, IPA: ˈtɛ̝ːɦa̠nminɡuk̚, lit. 'Great Corean People's State was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. However, it is not a direct translation of the Corean name.

History

Ancient Corea

The Corean Peninsula was inhabited as early as the Lower Paleolithic period. The history of Corea begins with the founding of Joseon (also known as "Gojoseon", or Old Joseon, to differentiate it with the 14th century dynasty) in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Corea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon was noted in Chinese records in the early 7th century. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled the northern Corean Peninsula and parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BCE, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Corean peninsula. Three of the commanderies fell or retreated westward within a few decades. As Lelang commandery was destroyed and rebuilt around this time, the place gradually moved toward Liaodong. Thus, its force was diminished and it only served as a trade center until it was conquered by Goguryeo in 313