Israel (1937)

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Israel, officially the Israeli Jewish Republic (Heb. מלכות ישראל יחודית, Omach Yisrael Yehudit) is a nation in the southern Levant. It is the only Jewish nation on Earth. Israel is bordered by Damascus to the north and northeast, Saudi Arabia to the east and southeast, and Egypt to the southwest and west. Yerushalayim is the national capital, economically, governmentally, and spiritually.

Israel is located in a region known historically as Canaan, Palestine, and the Holy Land. In antiquity, it was home to several Canaanite, and later, Israelite and Judahite states, and is referred to as the Land of Israel in Jewish tradition. Situated at a continental crossroad, the region subsequently came under the rule of many different empires. The late 19th century saw the rise of Zionism in Europe, a movement seeking a Jewish homeland, which garnered British support during World War I. During the war, British occupation led to the setting up of Mandatory Palestine in 1920. Increased Jewish immigration, combined with British colonial policy, led to inter-communal conflict between Jews and Arabs. The British Response was the Peel Commission of 1936, which proposed a Jewish nation in the Negev, Judea, Coastal Plain, and Galilee. This was met with celebration in the Jewish community and outrage in the Arab parts of Palestine. The Kingdom of Israel was declared independent on May 14, 1936, and immediately was offered assistance by Falangist Poland and Fascist Italy. The new Palestinian Arab Republic immediately attacked the Israeli Monarchy, beginning the First Palestine War (1936-1939), which ended with the expelling of 500,000 Arabs and a Jewish victory, with the Jordan River as the border.

The next 10 years saw development, immigration, and eventually involvement in the Second World War (1939-1945). By 1948 the new Arab League was again intent on destroying Israel, and the Second Palestine War (1948-1949) began, which ended with Israeli conquest of Gilead. During the Suez Crisis Israel invaded the Sinai to destroy fedayeen and withdrew, being replaced by a UNEF (United Nations Emergency Force).

During the period of 1949-1967 a massive national construction of industry, economic projects, and governing, cultural, and religious buildings was completed.