List of presidents of the United States

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Template:Short description Template:Featured list Template:Use American English Template:Use mdy dates Template:Pp

White House, official residence of the president of the United States, May 2006

The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States,Template:Sfnp indirectly elected to a four-year term via the Electoral College.Template:Sfnp The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.Template:Sfnp Since the office was established in 1789, 45 men have served in 46 presidencies. The first president, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College;Template:Sfnp one, Grover Cleveland, served two non-consecutive terms and is therefore counted as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, giving rise to the discrepancy between the number of presidencies and the number of persons who have served as president.Template:Sfnp The incumbent president is Joe Biden.Template:Sfnp

The presidency of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after taking office in 1841, was the shortest in American history.Template:Sfnp Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms.Template:Sfnp Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.Template:Sfnp

Four presidents died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy).Template:Sfnp John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency during a presidential term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his presidency.Template:Sfnp

Throughout most of its history, American politics has been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, no organized parties existed. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, political factions began rallying around dominant Washington administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson.Template:Sfnmp Concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party.Template:Sfnmp

Presidents

Template:Sronly
No.[lower-alpha 1] Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
TermTemplate:Sfnmp Party[lower-alpha 2]Template:Sfnp Election Vice PresidentTemplate:Sfnp
1 Painting of George Washington George Washington
(1732–1799)
Template:Sfnp
April 30, 1789

March 4, 1797
Unaffiliated 1788–89

1792

John Adams[lower-alpha 3]
2 Painting of John Adams John Adams
(1735–1826)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Federalist 1796 Thomas Jefferson[lower-alpha 4]
3 Painting of Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Democratic-
Republican
1800

1804

Aaron Burr

George Clinton

4 Painting of James Madison James Madison
(1751–1836)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
1808

1812

George Clinton[lower-alpha 5]

Vacant after
April 20, 1812


Elbridge Gerry[lower-alpha 5]


Vacant after
November 23, 1814

5 Painting of James Monroe James Monroe
(1758–1831)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
Democratic-
Republican
1816

1820

Daniel D. Tompkins
6 Painting of John Quincy Adams John Quincy Adams
(1767–1848)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
Democratic-
Republican
[lower-alpha 6]

National Republican

1824 John C. Calhoun[lower-alpha 7]
7 Painting of Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson
(1767–1845)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Democratic 1828

1832

John C. Calhoun[lower-alpha 8]

Vacant after
December 28, 1832


Martin Van Buren

8 Painting of Martin Van Buren Martin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Democratic 1836 Richard Mentor Johnson
9 Painting of William Henry Harrison William Henry Harrison
(1773–1841)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841[lower-alpha 5]
Whig 1840 John Tyler
10 Black-and-white photographic portrait of John Tyler John Tyler
(1790–1862)
Template:Sfnp
April 4, 1841[lower-alpha 9]

March 4, 1845
Whig[lower-alpha 10]

Unaffiliated

Template:Gray Vacant throughout
presidency
11 Black-and-white photographic portrait of James K. Polk James K. Polk
(1795–1849)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
Democratic 1844 George M. Dallas
12 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Zachary Taylor Zachary Taylor
(1784–1850)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850[lower-alpha 5]
Whig 1848 Millard Fillmore
13 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Millard Fillmore Millard Fillmore
(1800–1874)
Template:Sfnp
July 9, 1850[lower-alpha 11]

March 4, 1853
Whig Template:Gray Vacant throughout
presidency
14 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Franklin Pierce Franklin Pierce
(1804–1869)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Democratic 1852 William R. King[lower-alpha 5]

Vacant after
April 18, 1853

15 Black-and-white photographic portrait of James Buchanan James Buchanan
(1791–1868)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
Democratic 1856 John C. Breckinridge
16 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln
(1809–1865)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865[lower-alpha 5]
Republican

National Union[lower-alpha 12]

1860

1864

Hannibal Hamlin

Andrew Johnson

17 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson
(1808–1875)
Template:Sfnp
April 15, 1865[lower-alpha 13]

March 4, 1869
National Union[lower-alpha 14]

Democratic

Template:Gray Vacant throughout
presidency
18 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant
(1822–1885)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Republican 1868

1872

Schuyler Colfax

Henry Wilson[lower-alpha 5]


Vacant after
November 22, 1875

19 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Rutherford B. Hayes Rutherford B. Hayes
(1822–1893)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
Republican 1876 William A. Wheeler
20 Black-and-white photographic portrait of James A. Garfield James A. Garfield
(1831–1881)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881[lower-alpha 5]
Republican 1880 Chester A. Arthur
21 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Chester A. Arthur Chester A. Arthur
(1829–1886)
Template:Sfnp
September 19, 1881[lower-alpha 15]

March 4, 1885
Republican Template:Gray Vacant throughout
presidency
22 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
Democratic 1884 Thomas A. Hendricks[lower-alpha 5]

Vacant after
November 25, 1885

23 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Benjamin Harrison Benjamin Harrison
(1833–1901)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Republican 1888 Levi P. Morton
24 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland
(1837–1908)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Democratic 1892 Adlai Stevenson I
25 Black-and-white photographic portrait of William McKinley William McKinley
(1843–1901)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901[lower-alpha 5]
Republican 1896

1900

Garret Hobart[lower-alpha 5]

Vacant after
November 21, 1899


Theodore Roosevelt

26 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt
(1858–1919)
Template:Sfnp
September 14, 1901[lower-alpha 16]

March 4, 1909
Republican Template:Gray

1904

Vacant through
March 4, 1905

Charles W. Fairbanks

27 Black-and-white photographic portrait of William Howard Taft William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
Republican 1908 James S. Sherman[lower-alpha 5]

Vacant after
October 30, 1912

28 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson
(1856–1924)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Democratic 1912

1916

Thomas R. Marshall
29 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Warren G. Harding Warren G. Harding
(1865–1923)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923[lower-alpha 5]
Republican 1920 Calvin Coolidge
30 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Calvin Coolidge Calvin Coolidge
(1872–1933)
Template:Sfnp
August 2, 1923[lower-alpha 17]

March 4, 1929
Republican Template:Gray

1924

Vacant through
March 4, 1925

Charles G. Dawes

31 Black-and-white photographic portrait of Herbert Hoover Herbert Hoover
(1874–1964)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
Republican 1928 Charles Curtis
32 Photographic portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1882–1945)
Template:Sfnp
March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945[lower-alpha 5]
Democratic 1932

1936


1940


1944

John Nance Garner

Henry A. Wallace


Harry S. Truman

33 Photographic portrait of Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman
(1884–1972)
Template:Sfnp
April 12, 1945[lower-alpha 18]

January 20, 1953
Democratic Template:Gray

1948

Vacant through
January 20, 1949

Alben W. Barkley

34 Photographic portrait of Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1890–1969)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
Republican 1952

1956

Richard Nixon
35 Photographic portrait of John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy
(1917–1963)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963[lower-alpha 5]
Democratic 1960 Lyndon B. Johnson
36 Photographic portrait of Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon B. Johnson
(1908–1973)
Template:Sfnp
November 22, 1963[lower-alpha 19]

January 20, 1969
Democratic Template:Gray

1964

Vacant through
January 20, 1965

Hubert Humphrey

37 Photographic portrait of Richard Nixon Richard Nixon
(1913–1994)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974[lower-alpha 8]
Republican 1968

1972

Spiro Agnew[lower-alpha 8]

Vacant:
October 10Template:SndDecember 6, 1973


Gerald Ford[lower-alpha 20]

38 Photographic portrait of Gerald Ford Gerald Ford
(1913–2006)
Template:Sfnp
August 9, 1974[lower-alpha 21]

January 20, 1977
Republican Template:Gray Vacant through
December 19, 1974

Nelson Rockefeller[lower-alpha 20]

39 Photographic portrait of Jimmy Carter Jimmy Carter
(b. 1924)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
Democratic 1976 Walter Mondale
40 Photographic portrait of Ronald Reagan Ronald Reagan
(1911–2004)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Republican 1980

1984

George H. W. Bush
41 Photographic portrait of George H. W. Bush George H. W. Bush
(1924–2018)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
Republican 1988 Dan Quayle
42 Photographic portrait of Bill Clinton Bill Clinton
(b. 1946)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Democratic 1992

1996

Al Gore
43 Photographic portrait of George W. Bush George W. Bush
(b. 1946)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
Republican 2000

2004

Dick Cheney
44 Photographic portrait of Barack Obama Barack Obama
(b. 1961)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
Democratic 2008

2012

Joe Biden
45 Photographic portrait of Donald Trump Donald Trump
(b. 1946)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 2017

January 20, 2021
Republican 2016 Mike Pence
46 Photographic portrait of Joe Biden Joe Biden
(b. 1942)
Template:Sfnp
January 20, 2021

Incumbent
Democratic 2020 Kamala Harris

See also

Notes

Template:Notelist

References

Template:Reflist

Works cited

Template:Refbegin General

Expert studies

Presidential biographies

Online sources

Template:Refend

External links

Template:- Template:US Presidents Template:Lists of US Presidents and Vice Presidents Template:US Chief Executives Template:Portal bar
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